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  • § 382.101
    Purpose.
  • § 382.103
    Applicability.
  • § 382.105
    Testing procedures.
  • § 382.107
    Definitions.
  • § 382.109
    Preemption of State and local laws.
  • § 382.111
    Other requirements imposed by employers.
  • § 382.113
    Requirement for notice.
  • § 382.115
    Starting date for testing programs.
  • § 382.117
    Public interest exclusion.
  • § 382.119
    Stand-down waiver provision.
  • § 382.121
    Employee admission of alcohol and controlled substances use.
  • § 382.201
    Alcohol concentration.
  • § 382.205
    On-duty use.
  • § 382.207
    Pre-duty use.
  • § 382.209
    Use following an accident.
  • § 382.211
    Refusal to submit to a required alcohol or controlled substances test.
  • § 382.213
    Controlled substance use.
  • § 382.215
    Controlled substances testing.
  • § 382.301
    Pre-employment testing.
  • § 382.303

    Post-accident testing.

  • § 382.305
    Random testing.
  • § 382.307
    Reasonable suspicion testing.
  • § 382.309
    Return-to-duty testing.
  • § 382.311
    Follow-up testing.
  • § 382.401
    Retention of records.
  • § 382.403
    Reporting of results in a management information system.
  • § 382.405
    Access to facilities and records.
  • § 382.407
    Medical review officer notifications to the employer.
  • § 382.409
    Medical review officer record retention for controlled substances.
  • § 382.411
    Employer notifications.
  • § 382.413
    Inquiries for alcohol and controlled substances information from previous employers.
  • § 382.501
    Removal from safety-sensitive function.
  • § 382.503
    Required evaluation and testing.
  • § 382.505
    Other alcohol-related conduct.
  • § 382.507
    Penalties.
  • § 382.601
    Employer obligation to promulgate a policy on the misuse of alcohol and use of controlled substances.
  • § 382.603
    Training for supervisors.
  • § 382.605
    Referral, evaluation, and treatment.

Part 382
CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING

§ 382.305: Random testing.

(a) Every employer shall comply with the requirements of this section. Every driver shall submit to random alcohol and controlled substance testing as required in this section.
(b)(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (c) through (e) of this section, the minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol testing shall be 10 percent of the average number of driver positions.
(2) Except as provided in paragraphs (f) through (h) of this section, the minimum annual percentage rate for random controlled substances testing shall be 50 percent of the average number of driver positions.
(c) The FMCSA Administrator's decision to increase or decrease the minimum annual percentage rate for alcohol testing is based on the reported violation rate for the entire industry. All information used for this determination is drawn from the alcohol management information system reports required by § 382.403. In order to ensure reliability of the data, the FMCSA Administrator considers the quality and completeness of the reported data, may obtain additional information or reports from employers, and may make appropriate modifications in calculating the industry violation rate. In the event of a change in the annual percentage rate, the FMCSA Administrator will publish in the Federal Register the new minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol testing of drivers. The new minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol testing will be applicable starting January 1 of the calendar year following publication in the Federal Register.
(d)(1) When the minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol testing is 25 percent or more, the FMCSA Administrator may lower this rate to 10 percent of all driver positions if the FMCSA Administrator determines that the data received under the reporting requirements of § 382.403 for two consecutive calendar years indicate that the violation rate is less than 0.5 percent.
(2) When the minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol testing is 50 percent, the FMCSA Administrator may lower this rate to 25 percent of all driver positions if the FMCSA Administrator determines that the data received under the reporting requirements of § 382.403 for two consecutive calendar years indicate that the violation rate is less than 1.0 percent but equal to or greater than 0.5 percent.
(e)(1) When the minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol testing is 10 percent, and the data received under the reporting requirements of § 382.403 for that calendar year indicate that the violation rate is equal to or greater than 0.5 percent, but less than 1.0 percent, the FMCSA Administrator will increase the minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol testing to 25 percent for all driver positions.
(2) When the minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol testing is 25 percent or less, and the data received under the reporting requirements of § 382.403 for that calendar year indicate that the violation rate is equal to or greater than 1.0 percent, the FMCSA Administrator will increase the minimum annual percentage rate for random alcohol testing to 50 percent for all driver positions.
(f) The FMCSA Administrator's decision to increase or decrease the minimum annual percentage rate for controlled substances testing is based on the reported positive rate for the entire industry. All information used for this determination is drawn from the controlled substances management information system reports required by § 382.403. In order to ensure reliability of the data, the FMCSA Administrator considers the quality and completeness of the reported data, may obtain additional information or reports from employers, and may make appropriate modifications in calculating the industry positive rate. In the event of a change in the annual percentage rate, the FMCSA Administrator will publish in the Federal Register the new minimum annual percentage rate for controlled substances testing of drivers. The new minimum annual percentage rate for random controlled substances testing will be applicable starting January 1 of the calendar year following publication in the Federal Register.
(g) When the minimum annual percentage rate for random controlled substances testing is 50 percent, the FMCSA Administrator may lower this rate to 25 percent of all driver positions if the FMCSA Administrator determines that the data received under the reporting requirements of § 382.403 for two consecutive calendar years indicate that the positive rate is less than 1.0 percent.
(h) When the minimum annual percentage rate for random controlled substances testing is 25 percent, and the data received under the reporting requirements of § 382.403 for any calendar year indicate that the reported positive rate is equal to or greater than 1.0 percent, the FMCSA Administrator will increase the minimum annual percentage rate for random controlled substances testing to 50 percent of all driver positions.
(i)(1) The selection of drivers for random alcohol and controlled substances testing shall be made by a scientifically valid method, such as a random number table or a computer-based random number generator that is matched with drivers' Social Security numbers, payroll identification numbers, or other comparable identifying numbers.
(2) Each driver selected for random alcohol and controlled substances testing under the selection process used, shall have an equal chance of being tested each time selections are made.
(3) Each driver selected for testing shall be tested during the selection period.
(j)(1)To calculate the total number of covered drivers eligible for random testing throughout the year, as an employer, you must add the total number of covered drivers eligible for testing during each random testing period for the year and divide that total by the number of random testing periods. Covered employees, and only covered employees, are to be in an employer's random testing pool, and all covered drivers must be in the random pool. If you are an employer conducting random testing more often than once per month (e.g., daily, weekly, bi-weekly) you do not need to compute this total number of covered drivers rate more than on a once per month basis.
(2) As an employer, you may use a service agent (e.g., a C/TPA) to perform random selections for you, and your covered drivers may be part of a larger random testing pool of covered employees. However, you must ensure that the service agent you use is testing at the appropriate percentage established for your industry and that only covered employees are in the random testing pool.
(k)(1) Each employer shall ensure that random alcohol and controlled substances tests conducted under this part are unannounced.
(2) Each employer shall ensure that the dates for administering random alcohol and controlled substances tests conducted under this part are spread reasonably throughout the calendar year.
(l) Each employer shall require that each driver who is notified of selection for random alcohol and/or controlled substances testing proceeds to the test site immediately; provided, however, that if the driver is performing a safety-sensitive function, other than driving a commercial motor vehicle, at the time of notification, the employer shall instead ensure that the driver ceases to perform the safety-sensitive function and proceeds to the testing site as soon as possible.
(m) A driver shall only be tested for alcohol while the driver is performing safety-sensitive functions, just before the driver is to perform safety-sensitive functions, or just after the driver has ceased performing such functions.
(n) If a given driver is subject to random alcohol or controlled substances testing under the random alcohol or controlled substances testing rules of more than one DOT agency for the same employer, the driver shall be subject to random alcohol and/or controlled substances testing at the annual percentage rate established for the calendar year by the DOT agency regulating more than 50 percent of the driver's function.
(o) If an employer is required to conduct random alcohol or controlled substances testing under the alcohol or controlled substances testing rules of more than one DOT agency, the employer may—
(1) Establish separate pools for random selection, with each pool containing the DOT-covered employees who are subject to testing at the same required minimum annual percentage rate; or
(2) Randomly select such employees for testing at the highest minimum annual percentage rate established for the calendar year by any DOT agency to which the employer is subject.

Citation: [66 FR 43103, Aug. 17, 2001, as amended at 67 FR 61821, Oct. 2, 2002; 68 FR 75459, Dec. 31, 2003]