A broker or freight forwarder who knowingly engages in interstate brokerage or freight forwarding operations without the required operating authority is liable to the United States for a civil penalty not to exceed $10,000 and can be liable to any injured third party for all valid claims regardless of the amount (49 U.S.C. 14916(c)). The penalties and liability to injured parties apply jointly and severally to all corporations or partnerships involved in the transportation and individually to all officers, directors, and principals of these business forms (49 U.S.C. 14916(d)). Under 49 U.S.C. 14901(d)(3), a broker of household goods (HHG) who engages in interstate operations without the required operating authority is liable to the United States for a civil penalty of not less than $25,000 for each violation. Source:78 FR 54720.